The American Psychological Association (APA) style is used in the social sciences, biological sciences, and business.

APA uses in-text citations which refer the reader to a reference list at the end of the work. Both in-text citations and a reference list are required for proper APA citations.

To find out how to cite these components in APA style click on the links below or consult a PDF version of our APA Style tip sheet (an abbreviated version of this online guide).

Both resources are guides—not authoritative manuals—based on the 6th edition of the APA style manual. If you do not know how to cite a particular item or you are citing an item not found in these guides, consult the most current print edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in the library.